Nucleic acid sequencing is the process of identifying the correct alignment of nucleic acids within a DNA or RNA molecule. Human Genome Project (HUGO) is the first large-scale project that incorporates the use of DNA sequencing. With the completion of the sequencing of whole human genome, the need for developing faster and cheaper sequencing methods increased. This led to the emergence of next generation sequencing methods. Next generation sequencing methods are based on parallel processing of each fragment of a DNA molecule, which is taken from a single sample and cut into millions of fragments, at the same time in harmony.
Scientists can benefit from next generation sequencing technologies in carrying out various tasks; such as rapidly sequencing whole genome of an organism, examining certain desirable parts of the genome in depth, analysing genome wide methylation, performing RNA sequencing etc.